Scientific Information

■  Materials & Crystals Data Base 
■  Click here to see table 
■  Knowledge on Crystal Growth 
■   Verneuil method (Flamge fusion)
■   Czochralski method (Pulling up)
■   Bridgman method (Pulling down)
■   Kryopulos method
■   Bagdasarov (HDC method)
■   LEC method (Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski)
 The development of Crystal Growth Technology
-- Hans J. Scheel, Chairman of IOCG
(Excellent review on Crystal growth history and future)
■  Knowledge on Furnace 
■   How to make high temperature furnace
■   What is SCR power control
■   Thermo-potential vs temperature
■  for different types of thermocouples
■  NEMA plug chart 
Conversion of pressure unit 
Conversion of moisture/humidity 
Conversion of temperature unit 
Electric power around the world 
AC power plugs and sockets around the world (wiki) 
 The different types of AC power connectors in North America
■  Knowledge on Nano 
How to Disperse Nanoparticles / Nanopowders
How to disperse nanoparticles / nanopowders (nanomaterials)?    How to disperse nano-materials and mix with other powder?
Disperse nanoparticles  :  1) If used in the aqueous phase, may use ultrasonic treatment to disperse;    2) If used in oil phase, may use high shear mixing instrument to disperse.    3) If directly used as dry powder form, may use ball mill treatment to disperse.
How to disperse nano-materials and mix with other powder?    There is no specific method of the world.    It is still a research topic.    In general, if one nanomaterial will be mixed with other powder (for example: your ceramic powder), the first step is to put the nanomaterial into water or ethanol in the high-speed mixing instrument, add 1% dodecyl benzene sulfonate (detergent main ingredients), Instantly after mixing, then put the dispersed nanomaterial into the other powder (your ceramic powder) and continue to mix by still using high-speed mixing instrument, stirring rate the higher the better, time the longer the better as well, and then heating the mixed liquid material to be evaporated completely.
■  Knowledge on AWG (Wire Gauge Specification) 
■  Click here to see table 
■  Knowledge on Thin Film 
How to make Thin Film by dip coating
■  Definition of dip coating 
■   Novel Thin Film deposition
■  of colloidal nano-particle
■   Crystallization Study of SrTio
■  Knowledge on Film Growth 
■   Plasma sputter coating
■  Chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) (wiki) 
■  MOCVD technology and material growth
■  Physical vapor deposition technique (PVD)
■  for growing nanostructures by tube furnace 

■  Laser ablation technique 
■   Growth of ZnO nano-rod by VLS process
■  in tube furnace

■   Growth of Si nano-wire by VLS process


 Quick test procedure for MTI furnaces

 How to attach power to high-power furnace (for USA)

 How to install temperature controller into MTI’s furnaces

 How to install solid trigger into MTI’s furnaces

 How to set up ceramic tube and vacuum flanges

 How to change 32A fuse on MTI furnaces

 How to calibrate tube furnaces

 How to use and maintain Alumina tube

 How to check and replace heating element for OTF-1200X series tube furnaces

 How to install MoSi2 heating elements

 How to seal vacuum system

 Where to place thermoblocks for GSL series furnaces

 Electric diagram : KSL-1600X (jpg)

How to maintain and repair SiC heated furnaces (KSL-1400X, etc)

SiC heating element's resistivity will increase when operating at high temperature, which will results in furnace power reduce; meaning temperature will not reach to more than 1300oC.    In order to keep longer service life of SiC heating element, you need rewire SiC heating element with SiC resistivity increases from

5 series and 2 parallel connection (new) (5S2P)

2 series and 5 parallel connection (middle life) (2S5P)

1 series and 10 parallel connection (old) (1S10P)

If 10P still can not give you enough power, you need to change SiC heating element and start from 5S2P connection

Please click here to see diagram on how to change wiring from 5S2P to 1S10P

Please be advised if furnace chamber cracked, you shall repair them using Al2O3 adhesive (click to order) .    If crack is too larger, you shall use high temperature Al2O3 fiber to fill the cracks first, then put ceramic coating


 How to change round belt in the MD-10 XRD

Grinding / Polishing 

 Basic procedure for preparing metallographic specimen